BM-QFD: an approach to technology entrepreneurship in creating academic spin-offs
Leonel Del Rey de Melo Filho, Raoni Barros Bagno, Marina Bastos Carvalhais Barroso, Márcia Dias Diniz Costa
How to design new products and services in a context of an emergent industry based on cutting-edge science and technology? Current literature on product development and innovation management has long been biased by highlystructured methods oriented to support large-sized established companies operating in known (or knowable) markets, whilst technology entrepreneurship studies are gaining increasing attention in the last years offering more flexible approaches based on a build-measure-learn predominant logic. However, science and technology (S&T)-intensive products and services intended to explore completely new industries (such as those emerging from the nanomaterials field) seem to be poorly served by available approaches since they might share a few of the assumptions behind them. This study contributes to this field by proposing the BM-QFD as a methodological approach to support the design and development of S&T-intensive services. Based on the principles of Design Science Research and the genuine demand of a new venture in the science instruments business, a graphene nanometrology service is designed based on TERS – a special technique that applies cutting-edge technology which is essential for the development of nanotechnology. The service design was conducted by adapting well-established methods from the new product/service development literature in combination with those coming from the entrepreneurship field. The resulting proposal is, however, innovative concerning how such methods combine and complement each other in face of the particularities of developing S&T academic spin-offs
Bagno, R. B., Salerno, M. S., & Silva, D. O. (2017). Models with graphical representation for innovation management: a literature review. R & D Management, 47(4), 637-653.
Bagno, R. B., Salerno, M. S., Souza Junior, W. C., & O’Connor, G. C. (2020). Corporate engagements with startups: antecedents, models, and open questions for innovation management. Product: Management & Development, 18(1), 39-52.
Blank, S. (2020). The four steps to the epiphany: successful strategies for products that win. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.
Blank, S., & Dorf, B. (2012). The startup owner’s manual: the step-by-step guide for building a great company. Pescadero: K&S Ranch.
Borba Prá, F., & Miguel, P. A. C. (2013). Evolução na aplicação do QFD: análise de publicações qualificadas em periódicos. Exacta, 11(1), 89-100.
Braga, I. S., Bagno, R. B., & Souza, M. L. P. (2020). Prototipagem: definições, aplicações e oportunidades no empreendedorismo tecnológico. In R. B. Bagno, M. L. P. d. Souza, & L. C. Cheng (Eds.), Perspectivas sobre o empreendedorismo tecnológico: da ação empreendedora aos programas de apoio e dinâmica do ecossistema (pp. 225-265). Curitiba: Brazil Publishing.
Chan, L., & Wu, M. (2002). Quality function deployment: a comprehensive review of its concepts and methods. Quality Engineering, 15(1), 23-35.
Cheng, L. C. (2002). A guide for QFD implementation in product development. Product: Management & Development, 1(3), 5-15.
Cheng, L. C. (2003). QFD in product development: methodological characteristics and a guide for intervention. International Journal of Quality & Reliability Management, 20(1), 107-122.
Cheng, L. C., & Melo Filho, L. D. R. (2007). QFD: desdobramento da função qualidade na gestão de desenvolvimento de produtos. Belo Horizonte: Blucher.
Cheng, L. C., & Melo Filho, L. D. R. (2010). Platform conceptual model in QFD for generic drug. Product: Management & Development, 8(1), 3-16.
Costa, M. D. D. (2021). Desenvolvimento de instrumentação científica em nanotecnologia: inferências para nanoespectroscopia Raman a partir de Technology Roadmapping retrospectivo adaptado de duas tecnologias consolidadas [Tese de Doutorado]. Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte.
Costa, M. D. D., & Souza, M. L. P. (2019). Descrição da trajetória de concepção de spin-off acadêmica de alta tecnologia em uma universidade brasileira. In Anais do Seminário comemorativo: os 10 anos do Mestrado Profissional em Inovação Tecnológica e Propriedade Intelectual da UFMG. Belo Horizonte: Even3.
Costa, M. D., Cançado, L. G., & Jorio, A. (2021). Event chronology analysis of the historical development of tip‐enhanced Raman spectroscopy. Journal of Raman Spectroscopy : JRS, 52, 587-599.
Dresch, A., Lacerda, D. P., & Cauchick-Miguel, P. A. (2019). Design science in operations management: conceptual foundations and literature analysis. Brazilian Journal of Operations & Production Management, 16(2), 333-346.
Filion, L. J. (1991). Vision and relations: elements for an entrepreneurial metamodel. International Small Business Journal, 9(2), 26-40.
Freeman, J., & Engel, J. S. (2007). Models of innovation: startups and mature corporations. California Management Review, 50(1), 94-119.
Freitas, J. S., Gonçalves, C. A., Cheng, L. C., & Muniz, R. M. (2011). O fenômeno das spin-offs acadêmicas: estruturando um novo campo de pesquisa no Brasil. RAI Revista de Administração e Inovação, 8(4), 67-87.
Freitas, L. S., Melo Filho, L. D. R., Cheng, L. C., & Carmo, M. A. Z. (2015). Análise da aplicação do método desdobramento da função qualidade “QFD” em serviços preventivos de polícia. Revista Produção Online, 15(1), 243-275.
Gadelha, A. C., Ohlberg, D. A. A., Rabelo, C., Neto, E. G. S., Vasconcelos, T. L., Campos, J. L., Lemos, J. S., Ornelas, V., Miranda, D., Nadas, R., Santana, F. C., Watanabe, K., Taniguchi, T., Van Troeye, B., Lamparski, M., Meunier, V., Nguyen, V., Paszko, D., Charlier, J., Campos, L. C., Cançado, L. G., Medeiros-Ribeiro, G., & Jorio, A. (2021). Localization of lattice dynamics in low-angle twisted bilayer graphene. Nature, 590(7846), 405-409. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03252-5
Greene, F. J., & Hopp, C. (2018). When should entrepreneurs write their business plans? Retrieved in 2021, October 30, from https://hbr.org/2018/05/when-should-entrepreneurs-write-their-business-plans
Gusberti, T. D. H., Werner, L., & Echeveste, M. E. S. (2010). Do established companies and academic spin-off companies need different capabilities for technology development process? A discussion based upon literature models available. Product: Management & Development, 8(1), 17-32.
Holmström, J., Ketokivi, M., & Hameri, A. P. (2009). Bridging practice and theory: a design science approach. Decision Sciences, 40(1), 65-87.
Lasmar, T. P., & Freitas, J. S. (2020). O fenômeno das spin-offs acadêmicas. In R. B. Bagno, M. L. P. d. Souza, & L. C. Cheng (Eds.), Perspectivas sobre o empreendedorismo tecnológico: da ação empreendedora aos programas de apoio e dinâmica do ecossistema (pp. 581-600). Curitiba: Brazil Publishing.
Millar, C. C., Groth, O., & Mahon, J. F. (2018). Management innovation in a VUCA world: challenges and recommendations. California Management Review, 61(1), 5-14.
Morais, V. H. F., Vieira, D. M., Bagno, R. B., & Freitas, J. S. (2020). Past, present, and future of Product Management and Development: a bibliometric study on the contribution and challenges of PMD journal. Product: Management & Development, 18(2), 111-121.
Ndonzuau, F. N., Pirnay, F., & Surlemont, B. (2002). A stage model of academic spin-off creation. Technovation, 22(5), 281-289.
Osterwalder, A., & Pigneur, Y. (2010). Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. New York: Wiley.
Osterwalder, A., Pigneur, Y., Bernarda, G., & Smith, A. (2014). Value proposition design: How to create products and services customers want. New York: Wiley.
Phaal, R., Farrukh, C., & Probert, D. (2010). Roadmapping for strategy and innovation: aligning technology and markets in a dynamic world. Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
Pitayachaval, P., Chittrakool, K., & Arjharn, W. (2017). Integration of Business Model Canvas (BMC) and Quality Function Deployment (QFD) to design product. In 4th International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Applications. Japan: IEEE.
Rabelo, C., Miranda, H., Vasconcelos, T. L., Cançado, L. G., & Jorio, A. (2019). Tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of graphene. In 4th International Symposium on Instrumentation Systems, Circuits and Transducers. São Paulo: IEEE Xplore.
Rabelo, C., Vasconcelos, T. L., Publio, B. C., Miranda, H., Cançado, L. G., & Jorio, A. (2020). Linkage between micro-and nanoraman spectroscopy of defects in graphene. Physical Review Applied, 14(2), 024056.
Ratinho, T., Harms, R., & Walsh, S. (2015). Structuring the Technology Entrepreneurship publication landscape: making sense out of chaos. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 100, 168-175.
Ries, E. (2011). The lean startup: how today’s entrepreneurs use continuous innovation to create radically successful businesses. New York: Currency.
Ries, E. (2017). The startup way: how modern companies use entrepreneurial management to transform culture and drive long-term growth. New York: Currency.
Salerno, M. S., Gomes, L. A. V., Silva, D. O., Bagno, R. B., & Freitas, S. L. T. U. (2015). Innovation processes: which process for which project? Technovation, 35, 59-70.
Sarasvathy, S. D. (2009). Effectuation: elements of entrepreneurial expertise. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Schlesinger, L. A., & Kiefer, C. F. (2012). Just start: take action, embrace uncertainty, create the future. Boston: Harvard Business Review Press.
Seyring, M., Dornberger, U., Suvelza, A., & Byrnes, T. (2009). Service blueprinting handbook. Germany: University of Leipzig.
Shane, S. A. (2004). Academic entrepreneurship: university spinoffs and wealth creation. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing.
Shane, S. A. (2005). Finding fertile ground. Upper Saddle River: Wharton School Pub.
Shostack, G. L. (1984). Designing services that deliver. Harvard Business Review, 62(1), 133-139.
Silva, D. O., Bagno, R. B., & Salerno, M. S. (2014). Modelos para a gestão da inovação: revisão e análise da literatura. Production, 24(2), 477-490.
Souza, M. L. P., Melo Filho, L. D. R., Oliveira, C. G. G., Aniceto, M. D., & Silveira, C. (2017). Aplicação conjunta de métodos no desenvolvimento de startups: descrição e análise crítica. In Anais do Congresso Brasileiro de Inovação e Gestão de Desenvolvimento do Produto. São Paulo: CBGDP.
Souza, M. L. P., Souza, W. C., Freitas, J. S., Melo Filho, L. D. R., & Bagno, R. B. (2020). Agile roadmapping: a management tool for digital entrepreneurship. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 69(1), 94-108.
Souza, M. L., Melo Filho, L. D., Bagno, R. B., Souza, W. C., & Cheng, L. C. (2018). A process model integrated to innovation management tools to support technology entrepreneurship. In D. F. Kocaoglu (Ed.), Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology. Portland: PICMET.
Spinola, A. T. P., Bezerra, M. B. P., & Gregolin, J. A. R. (2007). Competitive intelligence: quality function deployment integrated approach to identify innovation opportunities. Product: Management & Development, 6(1), 11-17.
Van Aken, J. E. (2005). Management research as a design science: articulating the research products of mode 2 knowledge production in management. British Journal of Management, 16(1), 19-36.
Van Aken, J. E., & Berends, H. (2018). Problem solving in organizations. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Van Aken, J. E., & Romme, G. (2009). Reinventing the future: adding design science to the repertoire of organization and management studies. Organizational Management Journal, 6(1), 5-12.
Van Aken, J., Chandrasekaran, A., & Halman, J. (2016). Conducting and publishing design science research: inaugural essay of the design science department of the Journal of Operations Management. Journal of Operations Management, 47, 1-8.
Vianna, M., Vianna, Y., Adler, I. K., Lucena, B. F., & Russo, B. (2014). Design thinking: inovação em negócios. Rio de Janeiro: MJV press.
Voss, C. A. (2003). Rethinking paradigms of service: service in a virtual environment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 23(1), 88-104.