Collaborative alignment of design partners: first step towards the definition of multiple design process models used by an automotive supplier according to specific carmakers
Each player in the automotive value chain usually has its own design process model. Suppliers must evaluate the process by eliminating, adjusting (crashing), or fast-tracking steps according to each demand of a specific project. Sometimes a carmaker involves a supplier too late in the overall design process. Consequently, suppliers must pass over some validation activities and accelerate others to keep pace with the carmaker. This research aims to create a supplier design process model aligned with a carmaker's, which can support the collaborative design and prevent future problems. Based on this experiment, the broader objective is to define a set of process models for any relationship with specific carmakers. The methodology adopted is insider action research carried out in a real environment. One of the researchers is an employee of the company, which provided many insights for this research. The results confirm the reduction of the design development effort measured in engineering hours and development costs. The development lead time was also reduced, but other practices such as joint meetings may have contributed to this reduction. These practices were deployed from the integrated and aligned collaborative process model.
Amaral, D. C. (2002). Arquitetura para gerenciamento de conhecimentos explícitos sobre o processo de desenvolvimento de produto [Tese de Doutorado]. Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos da Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos.
Amaral, D. C., Conforto, E. C., Benassi, J. L. G., & Araujo, C. (2011). Gerenciamento ágil de projetos: aplicação em produtos inovadores (1st ed.). São Paulo: Editora Saraiva.
Amin, S., Mahasan, S. S., & Khan, F. N. (2014). Impact of collaborative practices on operational performance of firm. Case Study of Automotive Industry of Pakistan., 19(5), 661-668. http://dx.doi.org/10.5829/idosi.mejsr.2014.19.5.13625.
Attia, F. G., & Rathod, J. (2005). Trends in teaching supplier quality assurance in the global automotive industry. In Proceedings of the 2005 ASEE Gulf-Southwest Annual Conference. Texas: American Society for Engineering Education.
Binder, M. J., Gust, P., & Clegg, B. T. (2008). The importance of collaborative frontloading in automotive supply networks. Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management, 19(3), 315-331. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/17410380810853759.
Brones, F. A. (2015). Towards a greater integration of environmental sustainability into product innovation: action research and proposition of an ecodesign transition framework [Tese de Doutorado]. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.
Brown, S. L., & Eisenhardt, K. M. (1995). Product development: past research, present findings, and future directions. Academy of Management Review, 20(2), 343-378. http://dx.doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1995.9507312922.
Browning, T. R. (2009). The many views of a process: toward a process architecture framework for product development processes. Systems Engineering, 12(1), 69-90. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/sys.
Browning, T. R. (2010). On the alignment of the purposes and views of process models in project management. Journal of Operations Management, 28(4), 316-332. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2009.11.007.
Browning, T. R., & Ramasesh, R. V. (2015). Reducing unwelcome surprises in project management. MIT Sloan Management Review, 56(3):53-62.
Camarinha-Matos, L. M., & Afsarmanesh, H. (2006). Towards a reference model for collaborative networked organizations. IFIP International Federation for Information Processing, 220, 193-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-0-387-36594-7_21.
Choi, Y., Kim, K., & Kim, C. (2005). A design chain collaboration framework using reference models. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 26(1–2), 183-190. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-004-2262-9.
Chrysler Corporation, Ford Motor Company, & General Motors Corporation. (2008). Advanced product quality planning and control plan (2nd ed.). Southfield: AIAG.
Clark, K. B. (1989). Project scope and project performance: the effect of parts strategy and supplier involvement on product development. Management Science, 35(10), 1247-1263. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.35.10.1247.
Clark, K. B., & Fujimoto, T. (1989). Lead time in automobile product development explaining the Japanese advantage. Journal of Engineering and Technology Management, 6(1), 25-58. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0923-4748(89)90013-1.
Clift, T. B., & Vandenbosch, M. B. (1999). Project complexity and efforts to reduce product development cycle time. Journal of Business Research, 45(2), 187-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0148-2963(97)00227-0.
Coghlan, D. (2007). Insider action research: opportunities and challenges. Management Research News, 30(5), 335-343. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01409170710746337.
Conforto, E., Barreto, F., Amaral, D., & Rebentisch, E. (2015). Modelos híbridos unindo complexidade, agilidade e inovação. Revista Mundo PM, 11(64), 10–17.
Cooper, R. G. (2014). What’s next?: after stage-gate. Research Technology Management, 57(1), 20-31. http://dx.doi.org/10.5437/08956308X5606963.
Coughlan, P., & Coghlan, D. (2002). Action research for operations management. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 22(2), 220-240. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570210417515.
Coughlan, P., & Coghlan, D. (2009). Action Research. In C. Karlsson (Ed.), Researching Operations Management (pp. 236–264). New York: Routledge.
Du Preez, N., Lutters, D., & Nieberding, H. (2009). Tailoring the development process according to the context of the project. CIRP Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, 1(3), 191-198. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cirpj.2008.10.003.
Echeveste, M. E., Amaral, C. S. T., & Rozenfeld, H. (2007). A support tool for the selection of statistical techniques for industrial product development and improvement processes. In G. Loureiro & R. Curran (Eds.), Complex systems concurrent engineering (pp 247-255). London: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-1-84628-976-7_28.
Evans, S., & Jukes, S. (2000). Improving co-development through process alignment. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 20(8), 979-988. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/01443570010332980.
Gericke, K., & Moser, H. A. (2012). Adapting a design approach: a case study in a small space company. In P. Heisig & J. Clarkson (Eds.), Modelling and Management of Engineering Processes - MMEP 2012 (p. 101-114). Cambridge: University of Cambridge.
Guerrini, F. M., & Pellegrinotti, C. C. (2015). Reference model for collaborative management in the automotive industry. Production Planning and Control, 27(3), 183-197. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09537287.2015.1091518.
Guzzo, D. (2016). The uses and users of design process models in organizations [Dissertação de Mestrado]. Escola de Engenharia de São Carlos da Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos.
Hartley, J., Zirger, B., & Kamath, R. (1997). Managing the buyer-supplier interface for on-time performance in product development. Journal of Operations Management, 15(1), 57-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0272-6963(96)00089-7.
Helfenbein, K. G., & DeSalle, R. (2005). Falsifications and corroborations: Karl Popper’s influence on systematics. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 35(1), 271-280. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2005.01.003.
Highsmith, J. (2012). Gerenciamento ágil de projetos. Rio de Janeiro: Alta Books.
Holian, R., & Coghlan, D. (2013). Ethical issues and role duality in insider action research: challenges for action research degree programmes. Systemic Practice and Action Research, 26(5), 399-415. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11213-012-9256-6.
Humphrey, J. (2003). Globalization and supply chain networks: the auto industry in Brazil and India. Global Networks, 3(2), 121-141. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1471-0374.00053.
Kim, C., Lee, J., Kim, K., Lee, J., & Ryu, K. (2012). A collaborative design framework for the Korean automotive parts industry. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 26(1-2), 3-18. https://doi.org/10.1080/0951192X.2012.681906
Lehmann, F. H., & Grzegorski, A. (2008). Anlaufmanagement in der nutzfahrzeufindustrie am beispiel Daimler Trucks. In G. Schuh, F. Straube, & W. Stoelzle (Eds.), Anlaufmanagement in der Automobilindustrie erfolgreich umsetzen (pp. 81–90). Berlin: Springer.
Levardy, V., & Browning, T. R. (2009). An adaptive process model to support product development project management. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management, 56(4), 600-620. http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/tem.2009.2033144.
Littler, D., Leverick, F., & Bruce, M. (1995). Factors affecting the process of collaborative product development: a study of UK manufacturers of information and communications technology products. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 12(1), 16–32. https://doi.org/10.1111/1540-5885.1210016
Martens, B. (2008). Fahrzeuganlaufmanagement bei Volkswagen am Beispiel des VW Tiguan. In G. Schuh (Ed.), Anlaufmanagement in Der Automobilindustrie Erfolgreich Umsetzen (pp. 107–119). Berlin: Springer.
Nakamura, R., Franieck, E. K., Zucco, G. H., Silva, C. G., Nijenhuis, A., & Rozenfeld, H. (2016). Synergy in the Product Development Process between OEM and Tier-1 Supplier in Brazil. SAE Technical Paper Series, 36-0257. https://doi.org/10.4271/2016-36-0257
Oh, J., & Rhee, S.K. (2008). The influence of supplier capabilities and technology uncertainty on manufacturer-supplier collaboration: a study of the Korean automotive industry. International Journal of Operations & Production Management, 28(6), 490-517. https://doi.org/10.1108/01443570810875331
Oh, J., & Rhee, S.-K. (2010). Influences of supplier capabilities and collaboration in new car development on competitive advantage of carmakers. Management Decision, 48(5), 756-774. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/02517471080001503.
Peters, L. D., Johnston, W. J., Pressey, A. D., & Kendrick, T. (2010). Collaboration and collective learning: networks as learning organisations. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 25(6), 478-484. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/08858621011066062.
Petersen, K. J., Handfield, R. B., & Ragatz, G. L. (2005). Supplier integration into new product development: coordinating product, process and supply chain design. Journal of Operations Management, 23(3–4), 371-388. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jom.2004.07.009.
Petison, P., & Johri, L. M. (2008). Dynamics of the manufacturer-supplier relationships in emerging markets: a case of Thailand. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 20(1), 76-96. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/13555850810844887.
Ragatz, G. L., Handfield, R. B., & Scannell, T. V. (1997). Success factors for integrating suppliers into new product development. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 14, 190-202.
Rowley, J. (2003). Action research: an approach to student work based learning. Education + Training, 45(3), 131-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/00400910310470993.
Rozenfeld, H., Forcellini, F. A., Amaral, D. C., Toledo, J. C., Silva, S. L., Alliprandini, D. H., & Scalice, R. K. (2006). Gestão de desenvolvimento de produtos: uma referência para a melhoria do processo (1. ed.). São Paulo: Editora Saraiva.
Salminen, V., & Pillai, B. (2005). Integration of products and services - towards system provider and performance partner. In A.
Samuel & W. Lewis (Eds.), International Conference on Engineering Design (pp. 1–15).
Shenhar, A. J., & Dvir, D. (2007). Reinventing project management: the diamond approach to successful growth and innovation. Boston: Harvard Business School Press.
Shenhar, A. J. (2001). One size does not fit all projects: exploring classical contingency domains. Management Science, 47(3), 394-414. http://dx.doi.org/10.1287/mnsc.47.3.394.9772.
Smith, P. G. (2007). Flexible product development: building agility for changing markets (1st ed.). San Francisco: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
Sommer, A. F., Dukovska-Popovska, I., & Steger-Jensen, K. (2014). Agile product development governance - on governing the emerging scrum/stage-gate hybrids. In: B. Grabot, B. Vallespir, S. Gomes, A. Bouras & D. Kiritsis (Eds), Advances in Information and Communication Technology: Vol. 438 (pp. 184-191). Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44739-0_23.
Sutherland, J. (2014). A arte de fazer o dobro de trabalho na metade do tempo. São Paulo: Leya.
Vanhoucke, M. (2012). Project management with dynamic scheduling: baseline scheduling, risk analysis and project control. The Measurable News, 2, 315. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-25175-7.
Wu, W. H., Yeh, S. C., & Fang, L. C. (2007). The development of a collaborative design chain reference model for the motorcycle industry. International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, 35(3–4), 211-225. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00170-006-0722-0.
Yin, R. K. (2003). Case study research: design and methods. London: Sage.
Zendoia, J., Zapp, M., Agyapong-Kodua, K., Lohse, N., & Singh, M. (2013). Fundamentals of a co-design methodology for improving the performance of machine tools based on semantic representation. International Journal of Computer Integrated Manufacturing, 26(8), 751-761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0951192X.2013.766936.